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Honorary Life Membership approved by the ISST General Membership Assembly October 2020

George Lockwood has been in full time private practice for the past 38 years, 26 of which have been focused on the practice of Schema Therapy.  He is a Founding Fellow of the Academy of Cognitive Therapy. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship in cognitive therapy under the supervision of Aaron T. Beck in 1982 where he first met Jeffery Young as a clinical supervisor.  He then pursued training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and object-relations approaches.  His interest was in using insights from these approaches to deepen and broaden the range of effectiveness of CBT and he became one of the main collaborators with Jeffery Young in the development of Schema Therapy. This relationship has spanned several decades. George and Jeff’s  first professional collaboration began in 1986, pre-Schema Therapy, when they both set up a meeting with Albert Ellis at his Institute in New York City.  George posed questions to both Al and Jeff to explore the similarities and differences between Rational Emotive Therapy and Cognitive Therapy. The resulting publication (Ellis, Young, & Lockwood, 1987) received wide circulation in graduate programs in the U.S.A. due to its highlighting major differences between what had been considered highly overlapping approaches (see list of publications below).  In 1992, George and Jeff edited a special issue of the Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy on personality disorders which included the first published article on schema therapy by Jeff (with Michael Lindemann) and an article by George examining the integration of psychoanalytic approaches into cognitive therapy (Lockwood, 1992; Lockwood and Young, 1992; Young & Lindemann, 1992).

George is an ISST certified Supervisor and Trainer and has provided training in Schema Therapy beginning in 1996 in California and from 2000 to the present through the Schema Therapy Institute Midwest, of which he is the director.

He attended the conference in Coimbra, Portugal, where the International Society of Schema Therapy ISST was founded and served on the first executive board as Public Affairs Coordinator.  He was elected to that position for a further two terms (6 years in all). He has regularly presented at all the ISST conferences from Coimbra (2008) to Amsterdam (2018), giving workshops and participating in symposia and panel discussions. These have addressed a range of important topics including how to work with challenging clients who don’t respond to the regular approach we usually start with in schema therapy; the integration of an understanding of child and adult temperament in the role of attachment; the catalyzing role of  play and the amplification of positive affect in producing change; the development of positive and negative schemas, and using an understanding of these in informing and leveraging therapeutic change.

He has continued to be active in research and publishing and has guided and participated in important theoretical and clinical expansions of the schema therapy model. He has elaborated the construct of positive schemas, and has contributed to the development and validation of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire.  He has also worked on the conceptualization of the construct of positive parenting patterns, the development and validation of the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory and a major revision and validation of the Young Parenting Inventory.  His account of seven positive reparenting patterns serve as a valuable touchstone for therapists offering limited reparenting to clients and are presented in a recently published book chapter (Lockwood & Samson, 2020).


Bach, B., Lockwood, G., & Young, J. E. (2018). A new look at the schema therapy model: Organization and role of early maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 47(4), 328-349. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2017.1410566

Boulougouris, V., Malogiannis, I., Lockwood, G., Zarvas, I., & Di Giovanni, G. (2013). Serotonergic modulation of suicidal behaviour: Integrating preclinical data with clinical practice and psychotherapy. Experimental Brain Research, 230 (4), 605-624.

Ellis, A., Young, J., & Lockwood, G. (1987). Cognitive Therapy and Rational-Emotive Therapy: A dialogue. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1(4), 205-255.  https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.1.4.205

Lockwood, G. (1981). Rational-emotive therapy and extremist religious cults. Rational Living, 16(1), 13-18.

Lockwood, G. (1992). Psychoanalysis and the cognitive therapy of personality disorders. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1992,6(1), 25-42.

Lockwood, G., & Perris, P. (2012). A new look at core emotional needs. In M. van Vreeswijk, J. Broersen & M. Nadort (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Schema Therapy: Theory, Research and Science (pp. 41-66). Wiley-Blackwell.  doi:10.1002/9781119962830.ch3

Lockwood, G., & Samson, R. (2020). Understand and Meeting Core Emotional Needs. In G. Heath & H. Startup (Eds.), Creative Methods in Schema Therapy: Advances in Clinical Practice (pp.76-90). Routledge.

Lockwood, G., Shaw, I. (2012). Schema Therapy and the role of joy and play. In M. van Vreeswijk, J. Broersen, & M. Nadort (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Schema Therapy: Theory, Research and Science (pp. 209–227). Wiley-Blackwell.

Lockwood , G., & Young , J. (1992). Introduction: Cognitive therapy for personality disorders, Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 6(1), 5-9.

Louis, J.P., Davidson, A.T., Lockwood, G. et al. (2020). Positive perceptions of parenting and their links to theorized core emotional needs. Journal of Child and Family Studies. Online. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-020-01807-0

Louis, J. P., Wood, A. M., & Lockwood, G. (2018). Psychometric validation of the Young Parenting Inventory - Revised (YPI-R2): Replication and extension of a commonly used parenting scale in Schema Therapy (ST) research and practice. Plos One, 13(11), e0205605. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205605

Louis J.P., Wood A.M., Lockwood G. (2020). Development and validation of the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory (PPSI) to complement the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI) for Schema Therapy (ST). Assessment, 27(4), 766-786. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191118798464

Louis, J. P., Wood, A. M., Lockwood, G., Ho, M. R., & Ferguson, E. (2018). Positive clinical psychology and Schema Therapy (ST): The development of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ) to complement the Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form (YSQ-S3). Psychological Assessment, 30(9), 1199-1218. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000567

Wetzelaer, P., Farrell, J., Evers, Silvia M. A. A., Jacob, G. A., Lee, C. W., Brand, O., van Breukelen, G., Fassbinder, E., Fretwell, H., Harper, R. P., Lavender, A., Lockwood, G., Malogiannis, I. A., Schweiger, U., Startup, H., Stevenson, T., Zarbock, G., & Arntz, A. (2014). Design of an international multicentre RCT on group schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1), 319. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-014-0319-3

Why Schema Therapy?

Schema therapy has been extensively researched to effectively treat a wide variety of typically treatment resistant conditions, including Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Read our summary of the latest research comparing the dramatic results of schema therapy compared to other standard models of psychotherapy.

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