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SYMPOSIUM 7 | DAY 1: 4.30 PM - 6.00 PM

Positive Parenting Schemas, Positive Schemas and the Development of the Healthy Adult Mode

by George Lockwood, Jeffrey Young, John Louis, and Arnoud Artnz

Chair: George Lockwood

  

Two new instruments, The Positive Parenting Schema Inventory (PPSI) and the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ), initially introduced at the ISST conference in Vienna, have undergone major refinements with the YPSQ and the story of its validation now in press in one of psychologies premier journals, Psychological Assessment. This research has also involved a major refinement of the YPI and a further development of its empirical base. Taken together, the newly discovered schemas lead to the first clear and empirically based picture of the nature of healthy and unhealthy patterns of parenting and their links to positive and negative life patterns and the development of the healthy adult. In Talk 1 an update on the central findings of the last two years of a major empirical project to develop two new scales: The PPSI (Positive Parenting Schema Inventory: A measure of adaptive patterns of parenting) and the YPSQ (Young Positive Schema Questionnaire: A measure of adaptive schemas) will be presented. Talk 2 will provide a discussion of why and how these two instruments came to be and the important clinical implications of the newly discovered constructs that define the scales of these inventories. This will include a new understanding of the nature of limited reparenting and our greatest sources of leverage. In addition, the presenter’s experience with the benefits of using these new instruments in clinical practice will also be discussed. In Talks 3 and 4, Jeffrey Young and Arnoud Arntz will respond to talks 1 and 2 and each other in a discussion of this line of investigation in the context of its contribution to a much needed theoretical expansion of Schema Therapy and the possibilities opened up for new discoveries about about the nature of schemas, corrective emotional experience and broad life changes.

Segment 1

Presenter: John Louis

The Positive Parenting Inventory and Young Positive Schema Questionnaire; an Update on New Empirically Validated Constructs

This presentation will provide an update on the new discoveries and refinements that have emerged over the two years of research that have occurred since the initial presentation of this work at the conference in Vienna. This line of investigation has involved three main studies. Study 1 focused on the development of a measure for positive schemas, the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ). Study 2 focused on the development of a measure for positive parenting patterns, the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory (PPSI). Finally, Study 3 empirically showed the inadequacy of the Young [negative] Parenting Inventory (YPI), and provided a revised alternative (YPI-R2). For each study, community samples were collected from five countries in Asia (India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines; n = 229 to 628), and one from the United States (n = 214). The key findings will be presented including that the factor structure of the three instruments (the YPSQ, PPSI and YPI-R2) was stable in both Eastern and Western samples (in multi group confirmatory factor analysis) and that all three scales showed prediction of mental health over and above what was possible with previous measures (incremental validity). It was also found that the scales were not simply proxies for previously measured constructs (divergent validity) and that the scales demonstrated significant associations with other measures of well-being and ill-being (construct and convergent validity). This research has resulted in the development of the tools needed to include a focus on positive as well negative schemas and parenting patterns in both research and clinical practice. The benefits of so doing will be discussed.

Segment 2

Title: The Clinical Implications of the New Positive Parenting Schemas and Adaptive Schemas

Presenter: George Lockwood

This presentation will begin with the historical context of the development of these inventories and what this means about the factors that can best facilitate further conceptual advances. Following this will be a discussion of the key findings that have the greatest relevance for our clinical work. For example, the links between parenting and schemas are far more complex than our theory predicts. The nature of this complexity and the implications for our understanding of how schemas develop will be discussed. In addition, counter to our prediction, maladaptive and adaptive schemas do not form a continuum. An important clinical implication is that decreasing maladaptive schemas and the development of adaptive schemas are, to a significant extend, fundamentally different processes; each requiring its own focus and set of strategies. Clinical examples will be provided that demonstrate this phenomenon and ways to build upon it discussed. What these new constructs mean about our understanding of the anatomy and nature of the Healthy Adult Mode and the central dimensions of limited reparenting will be explored. In addition, a broad overview of this new terrain in the context of the percent of variance accounted for by the range of positive and negative parenting and life pattern constructs will be discussed in terms of the clearer understanding if offers of the main forces driving well and ill-being.

Segment 3

Title: The Evolution of Positive Constructs in Schema Therapy; future directions and clinical implications

Presenter: Jeff Young

Among the topics that will considered for presentation and discussion will be an examination of Dr Young’s original views of early adaptive schemas and positive parenting patterns in light of these current findings and what this means for our evolving understanding of the Healthy Adult Mode and the nature of the relationship between parenting, meeting needs and schemas. These findings will also examined in relation to their potential for deepening our understanding of the process of limited reparenting and for facilitating the process of change. In addition implications these findings have for our conceptualization of modes and ideas for further research to develop the theory and empirical base for modes will be considered.

Segment 4

Title: Positive Parenting Schemas, Positive Schemas and findings from Schema Therapy RCTs and Basic Research

Presenter: Arnoud Arntz

Arnoud Arntz will discuss the findings and methods of this current line of research as they relate to findings that have emerged from his series of RCTs centered on schema therapy and how they relate to basic research he has been engaged in on psychopathology and its treatment and the development of well-being.



About the Presenters:

George Lockwood

George Lockwood is the Director of the Schema Therapy Institute Midwest, Kalamazoo and is a Founding Fellow of the Academy of Cognitive Therapy. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship in cognitive therapy under the supervision of Aaron T. Beck in 1982, and has training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and object-relations approaches. He has Advanced International Certification in Schema Therapy, served on the executive board of the International Society of Schema Therapy for 8 years, has written a number of influential articles and chapters on cognitive and Schema Therapy. Dr. Lockwood has also been a central contributor in the development of two new schema therapy inventories, “The Positive Parenting Schema Inventory and the “Young Positive Schema Questionnaire” and has maintained a private practice for the past 34 years; the past 23 of which has included work with individuals, couples and families with a special interest in extremely challenging cases. Dr. Lockwood is been giving invited workshops on schema therapy throughout the U.S. over the past 20 years and has given workshops at ISST conferences in Portugal, Berlin, New York City, Istanbul and Vienna. He consistently receives outstanding evaluations.

Jeff Young

Jeffrey Young, Ph.D. is the Founder of Schema Therapy. He serves on the faculty in the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University, is a Founding Fellow of the Academy of Cognitive Therapy, and is Co-Founder of the International Society for Schema Therapy (ISST). Dr. Young has led workshops for over 30 years throughout the world, including the United States, Canada, the UK, Europe, Australia, China, South Korea, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, and South America. 

Dr. Young has co-authored two internationally best-selling books: Schema Therapy: A Practitioner’s Guide, Guilford, 2003 for mental health professionals, and Reinventing Your Life, a self-help book for clients and the public. Both have been translated into many languages. He also has two DVDs in the prestigious American Psychological Association Video Series: one demonstrating Schema Therapy for Individuals, and the other demonstrating Schema Therapy for Couples. 

John Louis

John Louis, PhD (candidate) is certified at an advanced international level in schema therapy. He is the developer of a parenting program, “Good Enough Parenting” which is taught world-wide. This program has been accredited under Singapore’s Ministry of Social and Family Development. He is based in Singapore and oversees charity work and programs in South East Asia. He has a Masters in Counseling from Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. John teaches marriage and parenting workshops all over the world. 

Arnoud Arntz

Arnoud Arntz is professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, with an affiliation at Maastricht University, the Netherlands. His main research interests lie in the fields of PTSD and personality disorders, both applied and fundamental. He also practices as a psychotherapist at PsyQ in Amsterdam, where he treats patients with trauma and personality disorders. Together with Adam Radomsky he was editor of the Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.



Why Schema Therapy?

Schema therapy has been extensively researched to effectively treat a wide variety of typically treatment resistant conditions, including Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Read our summary of the latest research comparing the dramatic results of schema therapy compared to other standard models of psychotherapy.

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